Use the microbial product COSTE MT 01 to treat dairy barn odors

Evaluating the change in air composition in dairy barns when using the microbial product COSTE MT 01

Nguyen Thi Hoa1*, Le Tuan An1, Nguyen Duc Anh1, Bui Van Cong1, Pham Yen Dung2,
1) Center for Science, Technology and Environment, email: hoabio78@gmail.com
2) Class 25 KHMT21 – Water Resources University

1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Duy Tien district – Ha Nam is a place with favorable conditions to develop dairy herds, especially communes along the Red River such as: Moc Bac, Trac Van, Chuyen Ngoai,… which are areas with large alluvial land areas. According to Mr. Nguyen Van Thap, Head of the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development of Duy Tien district, by the end of October 2017, Duy Tien district had 107 households raising dairy cows with 1,792 cows, of which 710 mother cows were giving milk. Output reached 13.03 tons/day. Developing dairy farming has created many jobs and stable income for thousands of local workers through livestock farming, grass growing, milk purchasing services…
Currently, 100% of households use biogas tanks to treat solid waste and wastewater. However, a huge problem today is the stench arising from livestock farming activities. In dairy farming, the main gases emitted include CO2, NH3, CH4, H2S… [3], these are the main gases that cause the greenhouse effect and create unpleasant odors that directly affect health. of livestock and workers directly on the farm, affecting households surrounding the livestock farming area and having a combined impact on global warming. These gases are produced partly from biochemical changes during food digestion in the rumen and partly due to incomplete decomposition of excess organic matter in feces. Treating odors in livestock is considered a solution that goes hand in hand with many other solutions to balance production needs and people’s need to live in a clean environment. Currently, there are many different measures to reduce odor generation in livestock areas such as using anolyst solution, ozone, biological products… Each treatment method has a different mechanism of action, advantages and disadvantages. different. In the framework of this article, the odor treatment effectiveness of the microbial product COSTE MT 01 and the change in composition of gases in the dairy barn area will be presented.

2. RESEARCH METHODS

2.1. Materials and research objects

+ COSTE MT 01 microbial product
– Bacillus spp. ……………………..108CFU/l
– Lactobacillus spp bacteria……………..108CFU/l
– Yeast Saccharomyces sp…………….108CFU/l
– Enzymes amylase, cellulase, protease…

+ Research object
The air around the dairy barn area

+ Location
Moc Bac Commune, Duy Tien District, Ha Nam Province

2.2. Research Methods

2.2.1. Fast measurement method

Quickly measure CO2 in the air: Use the testo 435 to measure the concentration of CO2 in the air in locations as shown in Figure 1.

2.2.2. Analytical method

– Analyze H2S according to MASA Method 701
H2S in the air is bubbled through Cd(SO4)2 solution. Then, Sulfide will be precipitated into cadmium sulfide (CdS) to avoid oxidation by air. Arabinogalactan was added to Cd(SO4)2 before the sample to minimize photodegradation of the precipitated CdS. Sulfide reacts with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and in the presence of (FeCl3) in an acidic environment, giving a methylene blue color, measured at a wavelength of 660 nm.

– Analyze NH3 according to TCVN 5293:1995
The method is based on the action of ammonia on hypochlorite and phenol with the participation of a reaction stabilizer, sodium nitroprucite. The intensity of blue staining of indophenol solution depends on the ammonia content.

– CH4 analysis according to TCVN 8715:2011 (ISO 25193:2011)
The sample gas is drawn from the gas tube through the sampling system and pumped into a gas sampling bag or box. The sample portion is taken by a gas sampling bag and introduced into a gas chromatography system using an FID detector. ECD and TCD.

2.3. Experimental arrangement

The experiment was conducted at 05 dairy farms

Spray the microbial product COSTE MT 01 with a dilution concentration of 1/50. 1 liter of spray preparation for 200 m2 of floor surface. On the first day, spray 02 times in the early morning and late afternoon, from the 2nd to 5th day spray 01 time in the late afternoon then repeat 01 time/week. Spray the entire barn floor, walls and land area around the barn (5 m radius), and the farm’s manure storage area.

All spraying products are done after cleaning the cage.

The 0 h sample was taken early in the morning, when the product had not been sprayed. Daily, weekly, and monthly samples are taken uniformly at the same time in the early morning before cleaning the cage.

3. RESEARCH RESULTS

3.1. The change in gas concentration causes unpleasant odors in the barn area

In the livestock industry, the two main gases that cause unpleasant odors are NH3 gas and H2S gas. These gases are the result of the decomposition of excess organic matter in feces and urine of bacteria. creature. To evaluate the effectiveness of the microbial product COSTE MT 01 when used to treat odors on dairy farms in Ha Nam, gas samples were taken at times before treatment and 4 hours after treatment. Processing, daily samples in the first week and periodic sampling every 2 weeks. Follow-up and evaluation time: 30 weeks, results are presented in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Concentration of NH3, H2S in the middle of the cage during 30 weeks of experiment with the microbial product COSTE MT 01
Figure 2. Concentration of NH3, H2S in the middle of the cage during 30 weeks of experiment with the microbial product COSTE MT 01

Analytical results monitored for 30 weeks at Moc Bac – Duy Tien – Ha Nam show that: Immediately after treatment, the concentration of odor-causing gases decreased sharply, especially H2S gas. After 24 hours of treatment, the concentration of H2S gas in the air in the livestock area was reduced by about 50% and approximately equal to QCVN 06:2009/BTNMT regulations on limiting the concentration of toxic gases in the surrounding air. [6]. By 48 hours after treatment, H2S gas concentration in the barn had decreased to below 0.04 mg/m3 and remained at 0.03 – 0.04 mg/m3 during 30 weeks of monitoring. According to QCVN 06:2009/BTNMT of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, H¬2S gas concentration must be lower than 0.042 mg/m3. Thus, when using microbial products to treat odors in dairy barns, H2S gas concentration has decreased below the level specified in QCVN 06:2009/BTNMT.

For NH3 gas, after 48 hours of treatment, the concentration was also reduced by about 70% from 1,350 mg/m3 to 0.425 mg/m3, 2 times higher than QCVN 06:2009/BTNMT. Analysis results up to 30 weeks showed that NH3 gas content did not decrease anymore but still fluctuated around 0.4 mg/m3. The amount of NH3 gas in the barn arises due to two reasons: first, this is a typical component in the urine of livestock, second, it is due to the decomposition of excess protein in manure due to microbial activity. object. Of these two causes, using microbial products can only limit the second cause of emissions but not the first cause. Therefore, the concentration of NH3 gas in dairy barns is still higher than QCVN 06:2009/BTNMT regulations on the content of toxic gases in the surrounding air.

3.2. Change in concentration of asphyxiating gases (greenhouse gases) in the barn area

In livestock farming in general and cow and dairy farming in particular, two types of greenhouse gases that cause suffocation cannot be ignored: CO2 and CH4. CO2 gas is produced by the respiratory activity of animals and is the result of the thorough decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms. According to Koneswaran and Nierenberg, if 1g of CO2 is considered a unit (or CO2 equivalent) that causes a greenhouse effect (heating the atmosphere and the earth), then the potential of 1g of methane (CH4) to cause a greenhouse effect is 23 equivalents. CO2. In other words, CH4 is a gas that causes a greenhouse effect 23 times greater than CO2 [4].
When using microbial products to treat odors in dairy barns, the concentration of these two gases is also monitored along with the two gases causing odors. The monitoring results are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. CH4 and CO2 concentrations in the middle of the cage during the 30-week experiment
Figure 3. CH4 and CO2 concentrations in the middle of the cage during the 30-week experiment

The results of evaluating the changes of these two gases in the dairy barn show that: among the 4 monitored gases (CH4, H2S, CO2, NH3), only CO2 concentration increased after using the preparation. COSTE MT01 microbiological product. According to data recorded during 30 weeks of monitoring, CO2 concentration increased sharply in the first 12 hours of treatment, then fluctuated between 330 – 350 ppm. According to the research results of Bakker and colleagues, CO2 gas concentrations from 10% will begin to affect the respiratory tract [5], at concentrations of 330 – 350 ppm CO2 gas has no asphyxiating effect and does not affect the respiratory tract. to the health of livestock as well as workers. Therefore, the slight concentration of CO¬2 gas in the air does not negatively affect the general ecological environment as well as the health of animals and the health of workers. In addition, the livestock area is surrounded by elephant grass fields and fruit orchards, so the amount of CO2 emitted will be cleaned through photosynthesis of green trees, so the slight increase in CO2 is not a big concern in this area. local dairy farming activities.

CH4 gas is a gas that occurs a lot in dairy farming because CH4 is not only produced by anaerobic decomposition activities of anaerobic microorganisms but is also a product of food metabolism in the rumen. This is one of the gases that causes a greenhouse effect, 23 times more powerful than CO2. When measuring the concentration of CH4 gas in the air in the barn, it showed that CH4 gas gradually decreased within 48 hours after treating the barn surface with microbial products.

The increase in CO2 gas and decrease in CH4, H2S, NH3 gas can be explained by the fact that when using the probiotic product COSTE MT01, beneficial microorganisms compete for the nutritional environment with anaerobic microorganisms, at the same time. The respiration of Bacilus, Lactobacillus, and Sacharomyces strains produces a respiratory product called CO2 gas, so the concentration of CO2 gas increases and the concentration of gases: CH4, H2S, NH3 decreases. This result was also recorded in the studies of Associate Professor Dr. Tang Thi Chinh when using microbial products to treat odors in poultry and pig barns using biological bedding [1, 2 ].

3.3. Assess changes in gas concentrations in the area surrounding the barn
Note: (*) Average data of 05 households implementing the model.
Note: (*) Average data of 05 households implementing the model.

To evaluate the impact of dairy farming on the ecological environment around the farm, the authors took samples 5 – 10 m away from the barn depending on the terrain of each farm. . The results of the study are presented in Table 1.

The results of measuring the concentration of some main gases emitted in the area surrounding the barn in Table 1 show that the concentrations of toxic gases such as NH3 and H2S are all within the allowable limits of QCVN 06:2009/BTNMT. regulations on limiting the concentration of toxic gases in the surrounding air environment. CO2 and CH4 gas in the area surrounding the farm also decreased lower than the concentration of those gases in the area between the barn because the exhaust gas was diluted with outside air.

Currently, dairy farms in Moc Bac are all in the form of open barns, with exhaust fans to both cool the dairy herd in the summer and ventilate the air, bringing clean air into the barn and diluting it. livestock emissions into the environment. Using microbial products to treat odors arising from waste (urine, feces) on the barn floor, walls, surrounding areas and manure storage areas has helped reduce the emission of toxic gases. , gases that cause greenhouse effects into the surrounding environment. Households applying microbial products to treat odors in dairy barns include households: Hoang Van Hoc, Nguyen Van Tien, Le Van Tuan, Nguyen Van Thinh, Hoang Van Thuong in Moc Bac commune. Duy Tien district, Ha Nam province all commented that the odor of the barn was clearly reduced after using the product. In particular, about 2 days after spraying the product, when washing the cage, the workers do not feel the foul smell in their nose like when they do not use the product.

4. CONCLUSION

When using the microbial product COSTE MT 01 sprayed on the barn floor, walls and manure storage area around the livestock area, it changed the concentration of gases released into the environment. The concentration of toxic gases such as CH4, NH3, H2S decreased by 50% – 70% compared to the time before using the product. Increased CO2 gas concentration is a product of respiration of aerobic microorganisms that decompose excess organic matter in waste. CO¬2 gas is also a greenhouse gas, however this conversion is more beneficial to the environment because CO2 gas is less toxic than the gases: CH4, NH3, H2S.

5. APPRECIATION

The article was made with scientific funding from the Department of Science and Technology of Ha Nam province and the Center for Science, Technology and Environment – Vietnam Cooperative Alliance. The authors would like to sincerely thank the leadership of the Department of Science and Technology of Ha Nam Province and the Center for Science, Technology and Environment for creating conditions for us to conduct these studies.

6. REFERENCES:

1. Tang Thi Chinh (2015) Building a production model and application of useful microbial products to treat odors in poultry barns, Institute of Environmental Technology, Final report on topic Code: NSVSMT/13-14.
2. Tang Thi Chinh, Dang Thi Mai Anh, Nguyen Thi Hoa and Tran Van Tua (2013) Application of Sagi-Bio microbial product to treat solid waste from pig farming, Scientific report – Global Biology Conference National 2013 Volume 2, pp. p. 80-84.
3. Bui Huu Doan, Nguyen Xuan Trach, Vu Dinh Ton (2011), Lecture on livestock waste management, Agriculture Publishing House.
4. Koneswaran, G. and D. Nierenberg, 2008. Global farm animal production and global warming: Impacting and moderating climate change. Pp:164-169. In Proceedings of International Conference on Livestock and Global climate Change, 2008, Editors: P Rowlinson, M Steele and A Nefzaoui, May 17-20, 2008, Hammamet, Tunisia Cambridge Univesity press, May , 2008
5. Bakker G. C.M., Bakker J.G.M., Dekker R.A., Jongbloed R., Evernts H., Van der Meulen J., Ying S. C., Lenis N. P., (1996) The quantitative relationship between absorption of nitrogen and starch from the hindgut of pigs, J .im. Sci., 74, pp188.
6. QCVN 06:2009/BTNMT – National technical regulation on some toxic substances in ambient air issued together with Circular No. 16/2009/TT-BTNMT dated October 7, 2009 of the Minister of Natural Resources and Environment.

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